Level of Details (LOD)

The first principle in building a 3D model based on BIM principles is to observe the details in the construction of elements. For example, if a partition box is not modeled with exact dimensions, its placement on the Kenaf wall will be problematic or it may interfere with the Kenaf structure. If the ceramic and its band are not modeled with exact dimensions, the output map, which is the basis of the work of the space ceramic carpet, will not be reliable. Accuracy at the level of detail of an element in modeling is defined by a concept called LOD, which  includes a range between 100 and 400.Therefore, at the beginning of the project and at the beginning of the BIM process based on needs assessment, the level of detail required is determined separately for each discipline. The official source for determining the level of detail, which is cited in the document “Fundamentals and instructions for implementing the BIM construction information modeling process in construction projects of Tehran province” published by the country’s program and budget organization, is the LOD SPECIFICATION document under the AGC standard. Its download link is placed for review and use. The detail level of each element is defined depending on the type of project requirement. For example, in utility projects, naturally, the LOD of mechanical and electrical elements is considered more than that of architectural elements. Regardless of project requirements, increasing LOD for elements of any discipline requires time and money.

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Dimensions of BIM

So far, everything we have said about BIM can only be summarized in the third dimension of BIM, which is called BIM 3D (modeling) for short. In other words, the simplest expectation from the BIM process is to convert design drawings into execution drawings and provide accurate measurements. Now we will talk in detail about other dimensions of BIM:


In the discussion of project management, timing and cash flow are the most important in the field of management. A project manager must be able to monitor his project against schedule goals and calculate cash flow. The presentation and review of this report, when it includes full details and is visual, can open the way for many management meetings in making major project decisions.

The fourth dimension is precisely the development of time management. BIM can connect all modeled elements to the schedule to produce the most accurate type of report by discipline and work front. In a simple sense, a project manager can take into account the existing deviation from the schedule and check exactly what element should be implemented in what work front in what floor in the project in three months and three days later. This report is visual and the project manager can schematically observe his project in the desired future and make a decision for it.


Cash Flow in a project is very important in project control. Imagine that a project manager can have an accurate plan for the project’s cash flow, taking into account deviations from the existing schedule. Now imagine that the project manager can know precisely how many meters of cable, cable tray, water pipes or how many square meters of plaster, ceramics, etc. he needs for the third to the fourth month.
What does a project manager need to refine the flow of project progress with a cash flow based on accurate and dynamic metrics that they have from modeling and a schedule based on other modeling?

BIM 7D (Sustainability)

Today, the world’s construction industry is more involved in requirements and precautions than anything else. The idea that once again, like during the industrial revolution, mega construction companies can complete their projects with complete freedom and use of energy and without environmental sensitivities. Now, imagine being able to save the energy cycle in the construction of a project by checking the surrounding environmental cycles, and analyzing the available energy both during construction and during operation. By analyzing the light of the project based on its geographical location in relation to the sun, you can save light in your lighting discussion without reducing the standards of the project. Of course, the seventh dimension of BIM is much broader than these words, and the increasing progress of technology is progressing and expanding this important.

The BIM process is a dynamic process. A live 3D model with all the elements of the project that can adapt to any change and provide a solution for ease of construction. Maybe this process is more expensive than the traditional two-dimensional (CAD) system at first, but it is much more efficient than the cost, and you should not worry about the cost to compete in today’s world. Rather, the income should be managed in relation to the cost.

BIM 7D (Facility Management)

This dimension of BIM is very expensive for employers, and naturally, contractors avoid it during the construction phase due to many details. After the construction of a project, in proportion to the importance and value of that project, a plan for the repair and maintenance of the elements worked in that project is foreseen, which is generally done manually, and monitoring and defiance of it is also defined as a human process. This increases the error in productivity and control.

Now imagine, a comprehensive program that can be monitored on the computer by managers and installed on the mobile phones of the maintenance team, and is connected to all the elements of the model, can be based on the information obtained on the elements during modeling. Implemented, in accordance with the schedule of overhaul and replacement of parts, guide the maintenance team at the appointed time and present the report of this repair or replacement visually and accurately on the model to the managers. Or, for example, based on the stubbornness of the face, it is necessary to replace one of the parts. The maintenance team can announce this news to the senior manager in this program and specify that element on the existing model, and using the GPS system, the manager or the relevant person will reach the specified location as quickly as possible.

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